August Kranti - 1942. A critical appraisal

Date: 07 Aug 2012


Who died for our country in 1944-46?: \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ August Kranti - 1942 A critical appraisal \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Background\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ History of the Freedom movement in India records the conflict of British conception of Indian lack of unity and India’s claim of unity based on Anti-imperialistic struggle and right of self determination. Having suffered defeat in the effort to maintain the integrity of the British Empire. Britain successfully imposed its theory of ‘Divide & Rule’ upon the diversity of the Indian people. They bolstered Zamindars, comprador capitalists, corrupt bureaucrats, Hindu-Muslim communalists, and widened the gulf between castes, races and communities. In this process leaders Jinnah, Gandhi, Saravakar, Naikar, Ambedkar were built up on National Political scene eliminating Nationalist Revolutionaries. After 1931 Karachi session of Congress two new elements came to dominate the national political horizon: one was organized Kisan movement led by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati and other led by Nationalist Revolutionary Subhas Chandra Bose and socialism became the common ideological plank of two converging streams.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ It may be said without exaggeration that Subhas’ Presidentship of the Indian National Congress in 1938 proved to be a turning point of India. Bose was a born rebel. He believed that future of Indian lay with that radical and militant focus that will be able to undergo the sacrifice and suffering necessary for winning the freedom. Naturally he became the hero of young generation and icon of toiling masses who believed in aggressive methods and socialism. Subhas did not favour the idea of Gandhi of accepting office and strucking compromise with imperialism. Gandhi miscalculated that responsibilities of office of Presidentship would moderate Subhas Chandra’s extremist ardour. Thus he was selected to preside over the congress of Haripura on 19 February 1938.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ But, things moved fast in cyclonic order. Subhas’ popularity earned him the highest post of congress in those turbulent days when men were impatient and were tired of talk of surrender by Gandhiates. Subhas took up the thread and laid special stress upon national planning, unity and organization of the masses for the national struggle. His policy of large scale industrialization and stiffening of opposition against compromise with Britain caused annoyance in Gandhian, Zamindar, Comprador Capitalist and Pro British elite circle who were looking forward to an understanding with the British Government in the name of defense of Freedom Democracy and menacing situation in European contrary. Subhas began an open propaganda and preparation throughout India to prepare the Indian people for a national struggle which should synchronise with the coming war in Europe and strengthen the country’s determination to resist the scheme of federation proposed by Britishers with all its undemocratic and anti national features. Bose also refused to be a puppet President and act in accordance with the wishes of Gandhi. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ That completed the breach between Subhashites and Gandhiates wing of the Congress. As expected Gandhian candidate Pattabhi Sitarammaya suffered defeat and Bose was re-elected in 1939 at Tripuri Session. Sahajanand stood shoulder to shoulder by side of Subhas Chandra. Subhas gave ultimatum to Britain that if Britain did not grant independence to India within six months, then India should take advantage of war in Europe to seek armed assistance from the powers ranged against Britain in the war. This sparked and alarmed the admirers of Britain and a battle royal was waged at the open session of Tripuri to appoint the members of working committee in consultation with Gandhi. Subhas was wanted to include three each from neutrals, Gandhians and from his own choice. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\----------------------------(1)\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Three Gandhians were:\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Ballabh Bhai Patel.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Rajendra Prasad.\\\\\\\\\\\\ Maulana Azad \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Three neutrals were:\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Jawahar Lal Nehru.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ M.N. Roy.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Jaya Prakash or Narendra Deo.\\\\\\\\ Three favourites were:\\\\\\\\\\\\ Swami Sahajanand Saraswati.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Nariman.\\\\\\\\\\\\ Kavishwar Shardul Bikram Singh.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ --------------------------- General Secretary Kripalani had to be replaced. This was totally unacceptable to Gandhi. For the first time Congress was going to slip from Gandhi after 1920 Nagpur session. Gandhi’s extra constitutional authority was going to be seriously challenged and destroyed and implicit confidence in Gandhi that he alone can lead the congress was shattered completely. To resist the imposition of war on India Subhas resolved to observe 23rd April as Anti War Day. In the face of the facts narrated above, the inference is in is unavoidable. President was warned by defunct working committee that it was not possible for him to act independently. As a result this created a deadlock. Subhas was debarred for holding any elected post in Congress for three years and Sahajanand was expelled for six years. Subhas and Sahajanand accused congress leaders close to Gandhi of planning a deal with British on 10th August 1939 Gandhian spelt out again with Gandhi’s full support Congress policy on the approaching war in Europe. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ “In this world crisis the sympathies of the working committee are entirely with the people who stand for democracy and Freedom.” (Mohan Das – Rajmohan Gandhi P. 446) \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Subhas Formed the Forward Bloc as a platform to fight more effectively the right wing Gandhain and also for preparing in major crisis to act on his own, even if the right wing failed to rise to the occasion. Congress banned any active or passive resistance to British Raj without approval of provincial congress committees. Forward Blocist and Kisan Sbahasites opposed the decision and observed protest day on 8 September 1939 but M.N. Roy and Congress socialist party did not join the protest day. Thus left consolidation committee’s unity was broken. Hitler’s war victory had shattered the British Raj and congress alliance. A large delegates of All India Congress Committee and vast mass of general public were against compromise formulae of Gandhi and Anti compromise session was held at Ramgarh on 19-20 March 1940 presided by Subhas Chandra Bose. Swami Sahajanand Saraswati was chairman of reception committee. Soon after forming the Forward Bloc platform, Bose launched his propaganda offensive throughout the country from May 1939 onwards. In July of the same year he organized protest demonstration against attempts of the Gandhian Right wing to curb democratic expression of opinion through meeting rally, dharna, strike and other activities. As a result disciplinary action was taken by the Gandhian High Command virtually expelling Subhas Chandra from the party along with his supporters. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Those who stood by Subhas in dark days of crisis important name is that of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Nariman, Kavishwar Shardul Vikram Singh, H.V. Kamath, N.G. Ranga, Soli Batalibala, Asharfuddin Chaudhary, Miyan Akabar Shah, Somanath Lahiri, Ram Krishna Khatri, Lal Shankar Lal, Anna Punnaya, Sheel Bhadrayajee, Padmakant Malviya, Dhanaraj Sharma, others were Abdul Gafoor, Pawar Ram, Ram Vilash Sharma, Mathura Prasad Mishra, Yogendra Shukla, Ram Lakhan Singh Yadav. All other the top leadership of Congress along with M.N. Roy, Jaya Prakash, Narendra Deo, stood with Gandhi, Christian Adivasi leader Jaipal Singh was with Gandhi.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ History records that after 1931 when Bhagat Singh was executed with connivance of Gandhi as a result of Gandhi – Irwin Pact only Subhas Chandra Bose and Swami Sahajanand represented the only distinctive, revolutionary, independent, and alternative current in India’s national politics competing with the Right wing lead by Gandhi, Nehru and his supporters like Narendra Deo etc. were oscillating, wavering and in doldrums Rama Swamy Naikar and Ambedkar were busy with number of seats in Assembly. Savarkar has abandoned the Revolutionary politics and was busy in social activity. Position of Naikar, Savarkar and Ambedkar were not clearly against the British Raj during the decade of 1930 and 1940. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Swami Sahajanand as Chairman of Reception Committee said to the audience: \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\“It is the time for us even to think of a compromise with him? Is it on the most opportune movement to strike a fatal blow at him and win our emancipation we are hungrying and thirsting after. British imperialism although struggling hard and attempting disparately for its very existence under the dreadful danger of being eclipsed fully and wiped out completely, treats our demand for even the full fledged dominion status with unusual contempt and yet we talk and think in the terms of an honourable settlement with it and that too, to achieve complete independence! Do you not feel the pinch of this shameful move of our national leadership, bent upon dishonoring mother India?” \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\He opined: \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\“We want to establish here complete emancipation of the masses from the triple bondage and exploitation of feudalism, imperialism and capitalism to Kisan, Majdurs and other producers of wealth. Can anything but on uncompromising struggle achieve it? -----------------------\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ He ridiculed the Mahatma Gandhi and others for his aim to achieve dominion status as a result of change of heart though British had no heart at all, when the unbounded love and perfect non-violence displayed towards it by the Mahatmas Deputy, Mahatmas, Assistant Mahatmas and their staunch followers. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Content of Swami’s speech was: \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\“In a nutshell we stand for an all round revolution. Frankly speaking I never believe in these (Change of heart and complete non violence). And it is only on the Marxian line I maintain that the society can be rebuilt in order to be free from Himsa and exploitation of all descriptions. Freedom of ‘Ireland’s the direct result of fight and not of the talk of compromise and settlement.”\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Subhas picked up the threat and summed up in clear, straight language and told that task before the country is to have clear ideology, clear programme, clear plan of action for final assault on the citadel of imperialism. He said that those who are not against imperialism are Pseudo socialist. Socialism at this stage is of anti imperialistic character, country is ready and this is the time to fight immediately and we shall fight. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Subhas raised the slogan, “Either give us Freedom or Death”. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ So, it is clear that “Quit India Movement” was started from Ramgrah on 19 March 1940 by Subhas Chandra and his colleagues. Gandhi only participated in it belatedly on 9 August 1942 half heartedly under compulsion of prevalent circumstances. Credit goes to Subhas and the situation which was ripe for struggle. In those turbulent and opportune times Gandhiji was out and out for compromise and surrender. One morning in the third week of January 1941 India was thrilled to hear that Subhas Chandra Bose enemy number one of British Raj had escaped the British surveillance and disappeared from his Calcutta detunes. He was assisted in his Endeavour by members of communist party, Jamiat-e-Ulama-e-Hind, and Ahrar Party. He wanted to go to Russia but then Soviet Russia already joined the Anglo-French Block against Germany-Japan Axis, so Subhas was compelled to change his plan by the prevalent circumstances. The world heard about when Subhas when he himself began speaking on the radio from Germany in November 1941, nine months after his disappearances from India. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ This resulted in declaration of 9 August announced from Bombay which is known as “Quit India Movement”.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ (Subhas reached Germany and latter Japan in his quest for foreign armed assistance to dislodge the British from India. The die was cast. Netaji decided to risk everything. He landed Singapore on July 2, 1943. Singapore fell to the Japanese forces). \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Netaji as a Supreme Commander of Indian National Army took over the leadership of the Liberation movement from Rashbihari Bose in Eastern Asia. He supported Aung Song of Burma and Sukarno of Indonesia. U Tube Submarine of axis nations began to move along eastern coast of India and Calcutta was traversed by plane of axis nations. Ghanshyam Das Birla was panicked and he asked Mahadeo Desai to influence Gandhi to do something. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Inside Story of Quit India: \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Point to be noted is what led Mr. Gandhi on October 11 to decide to start individual civil disobedience agitation? First to be arrested was Vinoba Bhave. Only selected persons were asked to offer satyagraha. When Subhas gave clarion call to start war of independence, Gandhi had no option and he had to save his face. When Subhas demanded complete independence and the country moved favourably towards him Gandhi was forced to search a way for his bailout without hurting the Raj and at the same time confusing the political atmosphere. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ What led Mr. Gandhi to announce “Do or die” on 9 August 1942. It was again Indian National Army’s advancement towards Manipur and havoc created by air strike on Calcutta that Gandhi was forced to counter balance Subhas’s popularity on one side and on the other to assure Japan that Indian National Leaders were not against Japan, meaning that Japan should not and need not treat India as enemy country, so that factories of industrialist of India situated at Calcutta may be saved. There was debate which block will win. Baldev believed that Japan would win where as others capitalists believed that Anglo French Block would win. Nehru was for Anglo French Block where as Mahatma was in doldrums. At last, he decided that who so ever may win, we should wait and watch and in the mean time British Jail would be better place for passing the time without giving any concrete plan to masses.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ The draft dealt with a likely Japanese attack on India’s east coast. Wanting India to face the possibility of Britain’s defeat or evacuation, Gandhi composed the following resolution: \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ “The committee desires to assure the Japanese government and people that India bears no enmity either towards Japan or toward any other nation” \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Nehru - Azad differed and disliked the appeasement to Japanese. Six members and five invitees favoured Gandhi-Prasad draft while four members and two invitees preferred Nehru’s when votes were taken. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\----------------------------- Azad as President did not vote. Gopalachari opposed both. At last Nehru yielded. Two foes of Gandhi were included in the Viceroy’s Executive Council in July 1942. Ambedkar was one and N.B. Khare was another who was removed on ground of indiscipline from the congress arbitrarily. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ An aggressive Japan and powerful rival Subhas was at India’s gate Gandhi heard reports that Bose’s supporters would assist incoming Japanese and I.N.A. forces. The enlarged war succeeding Gandhi, his life work and his dream aside. His position was threatened panicked. Nehru was talking of guerrilla warfare against incoming forces. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ As Gandhi put it: \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\“India is not the home at the British people. If they are overwhelmed, they will retire from India everyman and woman and child, even as they retired from Singapore, Malaya and Rangoon” \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\Nehru commented: \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ “The draft conveyed sympathy with Japan and the expectation that the Axis powers would win”. (Source – Rajmohan Gandhi – Mahatma and Suniti Kumar Ghosh: British Raj, The Big bourgeogee) \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Rajmohan opined that: \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ “Quit India passion was not devoid at reason: it would strong then the congress in India”.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Lord Lin Lithgo treated Gandhi as an instigator of violence and disorder while Government was engaged in the task of Quelling disturbances. Rajmohan Gandhi opines – (P. 358 as above). \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\“His (Gandhi) sole aim was to rescue Britain from his false position as an imperialist power and to re-establish its fame as the true champion of freedom and democracy”. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ He further writes – \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Gandhi’s insisted that there was no movement as neither the congress committee nor he had either given the order to start it or placed any programme before the country. The correspondence was unique in the history of the struggle for independence, but it proved sterile. Rajani Palme Dutt has quoted the letter written by Gandhi in his book “India Today”. Gandhi could not convince Viceroy about the purity of his motives. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Subhas supporters were assisting Fazlul Haque in forming the Government in Bengal to thrawt the formation of Government with the support of Muslim League. The Governance of Bengal John Herbert, was extremely suspicious of the coalition in which Subhas Bose’s followers were strongly entrenched. Governor intervened and kicked out Haque. (History of the Freedom Movement : Tarachand Page 356-57). \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Gandhian sided with Governor. In Punjab the unionist Party Government led by Khizr Hayat Khan was also dismissed. In North-West Frontier Province. Dr. Khan Sahib was also compelled to resign. In Sindh Allah Baksh, a nationalist minister was also dismissed by Governor. In Assam Saadullah a leaguer formed the Ministry. Thus five province came under the rule of Muslim League with active support of the British Government. This is clear indication that Guandhian policy completely failed in dealing with Muslim masses. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ When Congress leaders went to Jail without giving any propgramme and line of action to be followed the masses moved hither and thither swayed by the multiplicity of influence but were soon organized by Forward Blocists and Revolutionery Socialist Party and underground Nationalists like Siyaram Singh in Bhagalpur and Nana Patil in Satara, Keshav Prasad Sharma in Allahabad, Jharkhande Roy in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, revolutionaries of Midanapur and nationalists of Balia. The districts of Ballia excelled in Uttar Pradesh and Bhagalpur in Bihar. Siyaram Singh did not surrender till Congress Ministry formation in 1946. Several Police stations, Post offices, stations, were destroyed, roads and wire of Telephone were cut. Number of occasions when military fired were 68 and number of police firing were 601, number of fatal casualities were 761, number of casualities inflicted were 1941, number of police stations destroyed were 208. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Yogendra Shukla, Ram Nandan Mishra, Suraj Narayan Singh, Gulali Sona, Jaya Prakash and Shaligram Singh fled away from Hazaribagh Jail but after arrest of leader Yogendra Shukla, they could not do anything note worthy. Jaya Prakahs and Ram Nandan Mishra were given shelter by Raja Manshure was father in law of Ram Nandan Mishra and queen of Kashi was his own sister. Jaya Prakash was interested only in political alacrity and populous work. Aruna Asaf Ali, Achyut Patwardhan, Usha Mehta, Gulali Sonar, Siyaram Singh, Nana Patil did political work and damaged British Property and operated secret wireless. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ In October 1941, J.P. Jailed in Deoli was caught trying to slip, via his wife visiting him. When he was condemned by Raj, Gandhi came to his rescue. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ “Frankly, all nationalist forces no matter by what name they may are described are at war with the government. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\-------------------- According to the accepted canons of war the method adopted by J.P. is perfectly legitimate. To practice deception, to resort to secret methods and even to plot murder are all honourable and turn the perpetrators into national heroes. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Are not Clive and Warren Hastings British heroes?....” (The Hindu, 23-10-1941). \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ This is example of double talking of Gandhi. He had two standards to measure non-violence and its purity. In left circle it is generally presumed that J.P. was planted by Americans in Indian politics when Germany got a setback in Normandy and Japan in Eastern War Theatre, Gandhi again began to look upon British on the whole as a freedom loving people whose conscience was not altogether impervious to appeals. He was put in citadel of Aga Khan along with his wife secretary and hundreds volunteers and servants for service. He engaged himself in compromise exercise manifested in talks with crips, wavels, cabinet mission and mediocre like Gopalachari and Bhula Bhai Desai. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ In the same period, Subhas undertook the organization of the provisional Government of Free India and to inspire the army with fresh zeal to fight for independence he gave the stirring call \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ “We have a grim fight ahead of US far the enemy is powerful, unscrupulous and ruthless. In this final march to freedom you will have to face hunger, deprivation, forced marches and death, only when you pass this test, will freedom be yours.” \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ The battle cry was “Delhi Chalo, ~on to Delhi”. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Very soon his army captured Andamans Nicobar Island and moved up to Imphal in Manipur. He named the Islands as “Shahid and Swaraj Dwip” Although Bose finally lost the battle and had to withdraw, inspite of that his endeavour and his army was a warning to India’s foreign rulers that they could no longer depend implicity upon the loyalty of the Indian troops to keep India under their control. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ The I.N.A. was a portent. In 1946 Navy revolted. Thus was the eye openers for Britishers. They were forced to transfer power and provide dominion status of 15 August 1947. India became free from shackles of direct colonization on that day. India was divided. Kisans, Mazdoors, and others toiling masses were deprived from opportunity to make their constitution. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ India’s freedom was at last won but independence obtained was not full fledged, Gandhi failed in keeping India united. When Gandhi decided to support the partition plan in A.I.C.C. meeting, Congress Socialist Party did not oppose the Gandhi. But Sahajanand, Gaffar Khan, Purusottam Das Tondon, Bardolai, Gidwani, Algu Rai Shastri, Mohan Lal Gautam, Sibban Lal Saxena, Abdul Ghani, and others opposed Gandhi vehemently in the meeting. The dominion status for free India ensured a special position to the British interests and the membership of the common wealth proved to be a legacy of imperialism. Even after 15 August, 1947, head of state in India remained the same, the mountbatten. Thus was the real predicament that the influence of foreign capital in free India remained intact. While rural independence won to some extent, war of liberation was lost completely. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\ The Muslim League’s direct action call was mainly responsible for the holocaust which followed. The Hindu generally and the Sikhs specially were made target of out rages in 1946-47. In Lahore, Amritsar, Multan, Kohat and Rawalpindi, the Sikhs were victims of the most virulent attacks. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ The Sikhs nursed ideas of revenge. The 55000 force of boundary military stood aloof as they had no order to check the riot. They were ordered only to provide facilities to refugees who wanted to cross the border. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ (Tarachand as above Raj Mohan Gandhi: Sardar Patel). \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ More than crores were out rooted murdered, raped, abducted, looted. Atlee’s statement of February 1947 definitely fixed the date of British abdication but it was ambiguous concerning the succession. It gave an open license for Pakistan in some form or other. Muslim separatism derived encouragement. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Analytical Assessment of Quit India \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ History is a process in time which on the one hand links the present with the past and on the hand it is also the path finder of future. It needs to be analysed that what is the role of 1942 in India’s war of independence and how it worked? \\\\\\\\\\\\\ The Indian National Congress which was founded in 1885 as an organ of Barometer of the nascent political consciousness became the object of suspicion after 1920. Gandhi’s practice of Hindu orthodoxy and his participation in Khilafat destroyed its national character which was arduously built up by Tilak and Jinnah during 1916 Lucknow Pact. The constitutional Reform of 1909, 1919 and 1935 accentuated the sepeartist tendencies. The behaviour of provincial Government of 1937-39 engulfed the cleavage. Muslims felt betrayed in \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Uttar Pradesh after 1937 election. After the virtual expulsion of Subhas and Sahajanand from the Congress in \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\---------------------------- 1939, left the political constitutional field in the hand of Comprador Bourgeois - Feudal Lord Class in Congress and League was also in the grip of Zamindar, Nawab and Babu class mostly from Zaindar families. Gandhi, Patel, Rajendra Prasad were from feudal background and Nehru, Pant were vakils of Zamindars. Analysis of the Muslim members returned to the council of Uttar Pradesh in 1937 shows. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ No. Nawabs, Rajas and Zamindars 21 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Khan Bhadurs 12 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Advocates mostly from Zamindar 23 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Others 10 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 60 (Mujeeb M., the partition of India ‘n Retrospect) \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ The success of the Muslim League and Gandhi during 1942 was more due to the British rulers’ favouratism, persistent encouragement and support than to their own effort. Swami Sahajanand was icon of war of independence through kisan movement. Subhas Chandre Bose was icon of war of independence through mazdoor movements and Armed struggle. When both were forced to leave the Congress, their social base of Kisan, Mazdoor and toiling masses also deserted the Congress, leaving it totally in the hands of Babu Class. During the famine of Bengal in 1942, the gulf between peasantry and Zamindar widened and contradiction between kisan and Zamindar took command turn as most of Zamindars were Hindus and most of peasants were Muslims. Now, there was no Subhas to check and control the inherent hatred. It was beyond the capacity and liking of Gandhi to bridge the gap. Situation was further aggravated when Communist Party of India bent to support to Pakistan in the name of oppressed nationality and self determination. Now Gandhi and Jinnah emerged as top leader of Comprador Class in their respective communities. Communists supported Gandhi and Nehru as well in the name of ‘National bourgeoisie’, ‘national alliance, ‘national democracy’, ‘national front’, ‘national leader’ etc. etc. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ The movement of 1942 was in actual practice conducted by Subhasists and underground nationalist revolutionaries. The Congress adventure ended in fiasco when they were put in Jail and misadventure of Jaya Prakashasists ended in populism and advertisement. But mass uprising of 1942 led by Forward Blocists and like minded revolutionaries and endeavour of Indian National Army forced the alien rulers to leave the jeweled colony in haste by transferring the power in the hand of their protégé, so that their economical interest may not be hampered. The credit of India’s independence certainly goes to 1942 and I.N.A. but at the same time the capture of state power by Comprador class also owe its due to quit India movement which was coined by Comprador class after disappearance of Subhas. Subhas’s struggle was not devoid of class conceptions but Gandhi’s call was totally devoid of class consciousness. Under current connivance of Gandhiates with British Raj was apparent. Britishers did not harm any Gandhiates or J.P. aites in 1942. All were kept safety in Jail and were protected by Raj as real mass leader. There was no one to counter balance the intrigue of Gandhi, Nehru and their followers like J.P. and others. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ The failure of the Indian National Congress, Congress Socialist Party and Communist Party consisted in taking Indian Nationalism for granted as natural attitude of Communities of India. They either discontinued the class struggle or abandoned it or discouraged it on the other hand, the Muslim minority exaggerated its fears and apprehensions to ridiculous lengths. They represented the Hindus and Gandhi as tyrannical mousers but upon to destroy their culture, religion and language. Almost up to the end Jinnah was himself not sure and in any case for a long time used the demand of Pakistan as a bargaining point. It ceased to be so used only after June 3, 1947 when Government in clear and unambiguous term gave its ultimatum and final decision in favour of partition. Jinnah was bewildered when Pakistan was served before him in a plate. Due to intervention of Raj Gandhi and Ambedkar forgot their difference. Whole Comprador Class was united when power was being transferred to them. Thus general mass lost the war of independence. They had no icon of Subhas stature at the crucial period of 1947 to challenge the articulation of Gandhi and Comprador class. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ This is the untold story of impact, consequence substance and essence of 1942’s Quit India Movement. --- On Tue, 7/8/12, satbir singh <\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\.com> wrote: \\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Date: Tuesday, 7 August, 2012, 11:23 AM \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "DO YOU THINK YOU DIE FOR YOUR COUNTRY?"- A QUESTION TO SOLDIERS By\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Col Virender Pal Singh \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Anatole France once asked a soldier, "Do you think you die for your country?" When the soldier replied in the affirmative, he said, "Wrong! You die for the INDUSTRIALISTS." I would, in the Indian context, like to modify his suggestion to read as: WRONG, YOU DIE FOR THE CORRUPT, UNGRATEFUL and UNCONCERNED. Bureaucrats and politicians head this list, followed by bulk of unscrupulous businessmen who would qualify to be included in the list. Soldiers, today, must learn that they NO MORE fight a Nation's wars but the conflicts started by inept, inefficient and incompetent BUREAUCRACY of India, in league with self-centered, greedy and corrupt politicians. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ You ask me to explain it. My answer is very simple. All internal and external problems of India are created by lack of vision and thought bankruptcy on strategic matters by two sets of people who rule India, namely, BUREAUCRATS and POLITICIANS:\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ · From Nagaland in the fifties to Mizoram in the sixties; \\\\\\\\\\\\\ · From Assam in the seventies to Punjab and J&K in the eighties; \\\\\\\\\\\\\ · From Mumbai riots in the early nineties to Mumbai attack in 2008; \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ · From communal riots in Gujarat to the same in Andhra & Karnataka; · From killing fields of Bihar and UP to mafia murders in Mumbai; \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ · From 'MANDAL' issue to 'KAMANDA'L issue; \\\\\\\\\\ · From demolition of BABRI MASJID to burning of TRAIN in GODHARA; \\\\\\\\\ · From Naxalite hooliganism to Communalist mayhem since independence; all this and much more owe themselves to the misdeeds of an unholy nexus between the bureaucrats and politicians, who govern this country. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Whether it was the Indo-Pak wars in1947, 1965 and 1971 or 'WAR LIKE SITUATION 'in Kargil in 1999 or even Operation PAWAN in Sri Lanka in the late eighties and the Chinese invasion of 1962-----my dear departed comrades: you did not die for the nation; instead, you gave your lives so as to cover the callous mistakes of these people. You are dead and gone. But no one remembers you other than some politician’s rantings on these annual rituals, called 'Vijay Divas' or the 'VICTORY DAY". \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ · If there is a natural calamity in the country---army is called in. \\\\\\\\\\\\ · If law and order goes awry, soldiers are roped in. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ · If a child gets stuck in a bore-well pit, soldiers are mustered to save the innocent life. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ · BUT, no one punishes the guys responsible for such acts of omission and commission. In the bargain, if a soldier loses a life, they play-act a drama, as if they care too much but none does. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ There are many widows of soldiers, who are fighting their lonely battles----- ----no one is coming forward to help them except some ESM organisations such as IESL and IESM---to whom no one listens ---not even the Army. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Once the NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR, while in Germany, had made a remark on the army's recent projection of anomalies in the Sixth Pay Commission. He retorted to the questioner, "Don't worry we will sort out the bast**ds" or words to that effect. He did not know that MILITARY ATTACHE was also listening and who, then, faxed it to his chief. You know what happened then. The three chiefs walked up to the PM with resignation letters in hand. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ The recent case of OROP (One rank One Pension) is an interesting testimony to how bureaucracy fools everyone. Don't you know the way the soldiers have been fooled by this announcement in the parliament by our respectable Finance Minister on July 6 2009, when he vociferously announced implementation of ONE RANK ONE PENSION for the armed forces. Undoubtedly, it was an attempt to divide soldiers by announcing it ONLY for PBOR (PERSONS BELOW OFFICERS RANK). The Govt has, thus, tried to create a wedge amongst officers and PBOR. Even the so called grant of OROP to PBOR is a fallacy. Unfortunately, the UPA government is trying to exploit this by allowing some ex- Major in Delhi distributing leaflets on this. It is utter nonsense. What the Govt has done is to bring at par the pre-96 retirees with pre- 2006 retirees, which is only a miniscule segment of pensioners. The bulk of the pensioners lay in the post-1996 and pre-2006 category, which has been left untouched by the Govt. This is how our bureaucracy fools everyone and this is how the politicians willingly play into the hands of bureaucrats. I bet if Pranab Mukerji knows as to what harm he has done to the Armed Forces by approving this Machiavellian strategy of bureaucrats. To them, it is NOT the NATIONAL INTERESTS that matter but their PERSONAL INTERESTS.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ They had done the same thing during implementation and formulation of proposals for armed forces by SIXTH PAY COMMISSION. It is only due to near-rebellious situation in the Armed Forces that the Govt reluctantly accepted it. Now the same bureaucrats have played another dirty trick with the Army and the ESM. They do not realise that by tampering with the ARMED FORCES and its disciplined ethics, they are endangering the security and integrity of the nation. \\\\\\\\\\\ Just imagine what happens, if the Armed Forces wither away like police or any other government organization! Bureaucrats and politicians have broken the back of police and made them ineffective. Thus Law and Order has become a serious problem. Like Committed bureaucracy and committed police officials--- -they want soldiers also to be committed to political parties. If it happens, your national security be damned. THERE IS A VITAL NEED TO KEEP THE ARMED FORCES APOLITICAL. But some wise Congressmen think KARGIL-99 was not their war but BJP’s---similarly BJP will think that 1971 or 1965 wars were not theirs, but of the Congress’. What happens to soldiers? They too are being cultivated to divide the Army. Would Congress' soldiers like to die for BJP's war? The question is ridiculous but this is what Mr Rashid Alvi----- a Congress MP meant, when he ridiculed the celebrations of VIJAY DIVAS. No congressman asked him to shut up. How disgusting. Often, I hear the logic, that one joins armed forces voluntarily and that no one forced them to join. Very right. This very logic has affected the military ethos. You do not get the quality material anymore because of this lopsided thinking. Therefore there are aberrations ---corruption cases---rapes- --misbehaviour- --hooliganism- ---extortion and what not by some officers and soldiers. It is still under control---but if you continue to ignore them, certainly he would ask the question: WHY SHOULD I DIE FOR THESE PEOPLE? IS IT WORTH LAYING DOWN ONE's LIFE FOR SUCH SELF CENTERED PEOPLE? \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Most of our soldiers come from rural poor backgrounds and they still think of their poor families before they do any act which might affect their family’s honour. Therefore, they not only tolerate all sorts of nonsense but also accept the professional hardships. Their tolerance limits are much more than the soldiers of other armies.\\\\\\\\\\\\\ They suffer the vagaries of weather and man-made conditions silently. In 1962, they fought the Chinese with point 303 rifles with just 50 rounds---they went to snow covered high altitude mountains in their summer clothing. They died. They were injured but they did not rebel. It was exploitation of their impoverished background by the nation. Giving medals and awards to a few does not ameliorate the pain of many others whose deaths go unnoticed and uncared. The question is how long the Nation and the Army can keep its soldiers in the 'DENIAL MODE' from their LEGITIMATE DUES and RIGHTS? Today's soldiers are more aware of their rights and privileges. Education and literacy is making them INDIVIDUALISTIC. Time is NOT far when they would behave like the EDUCATED SOLDIERS---- Yes, its implications must be understood by all and sundry---even the Army. They will question everyone--from their own bosses to Governmental orders. THEY WILL NO MORE BE SOLDIERS OF THE 'LIGHT BRIGADE'---WHO WILL AUTOMATICALLY MARCH INTO THE 'VALLEY OF DEATH' WHILE THE BULLETS FLY LEFT AND RIGHT OF THEM. They will no more sing the hymn: THEIRS IS NOT TO REASON WHY; THEIRS IS BUT TO DO AND DIE. Therefore, please do understand that ignoring SOLDIER's MARTYRDOM and his SACRIFICES is going to be very costly for this Nation. Nation has to pay the PREMIUM for the SOLDIER's SACRIFICES and MARTYRDOM. Nation has to pay this premium for its own security and safety. It is NO FAVOUR the Nation is doing to its soldiers---whether they joined voluntarily or due to some economic pressures. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ The words of General Douglas Mac Arthur, US army Chief in 1931 echo in my ears, when he told president Franklin Roosevelt, "Mr President, when in the next war, an American soldier lay on the ground with enemy bayonet slicing his abdomen and spat out his last curse, I do not want the name to be Mac Arthur but ROOSEVELT". It is no point emphasizing that President Roosevelt gave to the Army what he wanted. And Second World War is a testimony that US army tilted the balance in favour of Allied Powers. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Therefore, I reiterate that dues of Indian soldiers must be given. The Nation must do it. If you do not do this, then the ULTIMATE WILL HAPPEN-----as a URDU SHAYAR had said, " AGAR AB BHI NA SAMJHOGE AYE HINDOSTAN WALO---TUMHAARI DAASTAAN TAK BHI NA HOGI DAASTAANO MEIN"( If you do not mend your ways O' Indians, you shall evaporate and not exist even in History books). Take it from me, there will be no more SAFE INDUSTRIES-- -THERE WILL BE NO MORE JET FLYING 'CEOs' and smooth talking corporate managers or the GLOBE TROTTING IT's WONDER BOYS IN INDIA------- ---THERE WILL BE NO MORE SAFE HOMES FOR YOU TO INDULGE IN BLOGGING ON SULEKHA----- --IN FACT, THERE WILL BE NO MORE INDIA AS IT EXISTS TODAY. Decide what you want. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ ======================================